Witaj, Gość
Musisz się zarejestrować przed napisaniem posta.

Użytkownik
  

Hasło
  





Szukaj na forum

(Zaawansowane szukanie)

Statystyki
» Użytkownicy: 1,124
» Najnowszy użytkownik: oqytel
» Wątków na forum: 1,116
» Postów na forum: 8,051

Pełne statystyki

Użytkownicy online
Aktualnie jest 109 użytkowników online.
» 0 Użytkownik(ów) | 107 Gość(i)
Bing, Google

Ostatnie wątki
Zdarzenie
Forum: LanKontroler V3.5
Ostatni post: stAch
09-26-2021, 08:23 PM
» Odpowiedzi: 5
» Wyświetleń: 197
dokumentacja on-line
Forum: LanKontroler V3.5
Ostatni post: stAch
09-24-2021, 09:28 PM
» Odpowiedzi: 8
» Wyświetleń: 292
LK3.5-NOWY SOFT - KOLEJNE...
Forum: LanKontroler V3.5
Ostatni post: stAch
09-17-2021, 09:19 PM
» Odpowiedzi: 330
» Wyświetleń: 105,348
Tablica zdarzeń - czegoś ...
Forum: LanKontroler V3.5
Ostatni post: stAch
09-15-2021, 08:41 PM
» Odpowiedzi: 20
» Wyświetleń: 2,441
LCD Switcher
Forum: LanKontroler V3.5
Ostatni post: stAch
09-09-2021, 09:21 AM
» Odpowiedzi: 8
» Wyświetleń: 463
Email na Gmail
Forum: LanKontroler V3.5
Ostatni post: stAch
09-01-2021, 01:57 PM
» Odpowiedzi: 6
» Wyświetleń: 359
Zdarzenie - out czas zadz...
Forum: LanKontroler V3.5
Ostatni post: wilkxt
08-31-2021, 08:45 AM
» Odpowiedzi: 3
» Wyświetleń: 481
Stacja pogodowa
Forum: LanKontroler V3.5
Ostatni post: stAch
08-27-2021, 06:05 PM
» Odpowiedzi: 4
» Wyświetleń: 425
Wgrywanie firmware przez ...
Forum: LanKontroler - wersje oprogramowania
Ostatni post: wilkxt
08-26-2021, 12:06 PM
» Odpowiedzi: 17
» Wyświetleń: 82,946
Obsługa Eastron SDM630-Mo...
Forum: LanKontroler V3.5
Ostatni post: notek
08-23-2021, 12:21 PM
» Odpowiedzi: 3
» Wyświetleń: 406

 
  What is a Power Tiller?
Napisane przez: ou89pd5 - 08-12-2021, 05:48 AM - Forum: GSM kontroler GSM - Brak odpowiedzi

What is a Power Tiller?

    A power tiller, also sometimes known as a rotary tiller, a rototiller, a rotavator, or a rotary hoe or plow, is a garden tool used primarily to cultivate and aerate soil. There are a couple of different variations and available options, but the most characteristic aspect of this tool is its basic form and function: it has tines or blades that rotate to turn the soil, and in “power” options this rotation is harnessed to a motor. The tools are basically a mechanical adaptation of manual tillers, which are hand-powered tools used for a similar purpose. Attaching the bladed mechanism to a motor makes it more efficient and less straining. Some of the least expensive models still require pushing and maneuvering and are often compared to lawnmowers when it comes to their size and basic utility. Larger options can frequently be harnessed to farm machinery like tractors and plows. In some countries, this sort of mechanized tiller may also be a two-wheeled tractor, which may have other attachments and functions aside from cultivation.

    Agriculture and farming are about more than just simply planting crops. In many if not most cases, the soil also has to be tended to. Farmers have to pay attention to things like soil moisture, nutrient levels, and drainage in order for their plants to grow. Turning the soil and mixing it up a bit before planting is something most farmers and growers do to help the roots take hold and to loosen debris like rocks or other things that could impede proper root growth or nutrient absorption.

    Agricultural power tillers, whether manual or powered, are an important part of this process. These tools can prepare the ground for new plantings, which can help them grow stronger and become more resilient, two qualities essential for optimal growth. Professional farmers and growers are usually the most common consumers of these devices, but they also have useful applications for home gardeners. They tend to take up a lot of space, though, and as a result they’re usually only popular with people who have someplace like a storage shed to house the machine when it’s not in use.

    Electric welding generator sets are major equipment in any workshop when it comes to welding. You simply need to fill up the fuel tank and you are good to go. These generators will power your welding equipment whenever and wherever you need them.

    The mini power tillers are used for cultivation. These tillers are very economical and provide outstanding performance. These tillers make the easier and save lots of time in cultivating. These tillers are identified for their features like resistance to corrosion, efficiency and long-life service. These tillers can be used on a regular basis as well as occasionally. These tillers are used for doing the surface evenly.

    Brush cutters are used for clearing grass and small bushes. It is a more robust and stronger machine than a grass trimmer and comes with a range of engines. A more powerful machine is required for high-density vegetation. With the right accessories, multiple operations like trimming grass, clearing shrubs as well as shredding smaller trees can be performed. The longer shaft can be attached to the brush cutter in order to increase its working range.

    As the cutting attachment rotates counter-clockwise, a right-to-left cutting motion is recommended. The advantage of this method is that the trimmings fall on the cut area.

    When working in very long grass or tough weeds, two passes are recommended. An initial pass, right to left, cuts the top of the grass. Then, a lower pass, left to right, removes the remaining grass. The trimmings will discard to the left.

    The best way to cut large areas is to use the square method. Divide the area which is to be mown into squares and then work along the outsides toward the center.

    The strip method is a good way to mow a slope. Cut a strip parallel to the slope, and then return along the swath. Then cut the next strip above and repeat.

    The “mowing line” created by the trimmer is the best way of navigating right up to trees/bushes without damaging them. If several plants are growing close together, try to clear around them before mowing.

    To do that, use the deflector on your brushcutter as a guide. Place the deflector up against the base of the tree or bush and use it to guide you as you move. That protects the trunk while mowing the area around it.

    There are three basic designs used in creating tiller blades: the bolo, the pick and chisel and the slasher. Each style of blade provides a unique tilling aspect, with the bolo style of blade being the primary type of all-purpose blade available. Rotary tiller blades are different in power tiller and manual tiller designs, however, the basic style of blade remains commonly named for each machine. Made of high-strength steel, tiller blades are able to withstand striking rocks and cutting through very hard soil for hours without requiring replacement or sharpening, in most cases. The individual blades can typically be changed by simply removing two or three bolts, making the process of changing from one style of blade to another a very quick and relatively simple task.

Wydrukuj tę wiadomość

  Stainless Steel, Bronze, Brass, or Aluminum: How to Choose Handle Materials
Napisane przez: ou89pd5 - 08-12-2021, 05:47 AM - Forum: GSM kontroler GSM - Brak odpowiedzi

Door handles are a ubiquitous part of daily life, being used constantly in almost every space but rarely given thought by the passing user. Nevertheless, the chosen material of each handle can vary widely in terms of aesthetics, durability, and sustainability, with good choices going noticeably right and poor choices going noticeably wrong. For objects that are seen and used multiple times every day without fail, it’s imperative that designers get the choice right.

    Stainless Steel

    Stainless steel is a naturally corrosion-resistant, hard-wearing, and low-maintenance material. No matter the force or frequency of use, it rarely reveals traces of dents or scratches, even after years of employment. As a result, mirror polished stainless door handles require very little, if not no, care at all. First patented in 1912 by Krupp in Essen, stainless steel was referred to as “V2a-steel” and “Nirosta” (never rust). Recognized for its easy-care and blemishless properties at the outset, the material has since been used in scenarios requiring continuous use and infrequent maintenance. As a material for door handles, stainless steel is thus best applied to heavily used doors, particularly those in public buildings such as the public authorities, hospitals, on ships in motorway service areas, in parks and sports facilities, and other locations with large user populations that will be in use for a long time.

    While stainless steel does not rust, traces of dirt that collect over long periods of time can be quickly removed with a moist cloth. For stainless steel handles in chlorinated swimming pools, what appears to be surface rust is usually not from the material itself but is transported from outside to the fitting. These blemishes can be removed as well with vigorous rubbing.

    Brass

    Formed by an alloy of copper and zinc, brass has been used since time immemorial in the manufacture of decorative elements and accessories for doors and windows due to its unique golden tones. If not waxed or lacquered, brass will react naturally to environmental conditions, causing it to corrode and develop a brown to greenish-gray patina. This effect is valued by many designers and users for gracefully representing the passage of time. However, for those who wish to maintain the original golden tone, it is recommended to choose polished surfaces and avoid using the brass for frequently used doors or in spaces exposed to environmental conditions.

    Aluminum

    Aluminum is a lightweight and highly durable material, conceived of from the start as a high-tech option. It is strong and pleasant to handle, being highly adept at matching ambient temperatures, and allows for a multitude of aesthetic options due to its ability to be painted any range of colors.

    With a reputation for being used in the auto, aeronautical, and aerospace industries due to these unique qualities, aluminum can likewise be applied to door handles not just for its low weight, strength, and durability, but because of its ecologically friendly life cycle. While the initial extraction of aluminum requires a large amount of energy, the material can be recycled repeatedly with no loss, making up its initial extraction many times over through extensive energy savings.

    Aluminum coloring options additionally pave the way for seemingly unlimited aesthetic possibilities, ranging from classic emulations of real hardware metals to lively applications of hundreds of pure colors. Depending on methods of coloring, some mirror polished alu door handles are more durable than others – for example, blasted anodized aluminum finishes are typically more resistant to knocks and scratches than traditionally worked and anodized aluminum. If both color and durability are a priority for the designer, we recommend considering the differences in properties produced by differing processes.

    Do Your Furniture and Equipment Have the Proper Feet?

    Although people often don't think about the feet on furniture or heavy machinery, these items are of great importance. A home or office furnishing may take a great deal of abuse, especially at the floor level. When people sit down, they may unintentionally kick the furniture or vacuums and other cleaning supplies may run into the piece. Everything can do damage to the item, and the same is true when it comes to equipment in a home or office.

    Furthermore, machinery and heavy-duty shop equipment can damage the surface they rest on during operation, when in use, or when moved from one location to another, yet these components can help to prevent this damage. Furniture foot come in many varieties and provide numerous benefits, thus individuals need to understand the options and advantages when choosing feet for any purpose.

    What Exactly Does Bathroom Hardware Suite Include?

    Bathroom hardware is usually defined as any metal furnishing in a bathroom that you can interact with. The bathroom, in particular, has more hardware than most other rooms due to all of the handles, racks, and drawers. Hardware can include towel racks, shower curtain rods, showerheads, tub accessories, drawer handles, and other bathroom hardwares. There are even more possibilities and every bathroom is different depending on how it was designed. Even bathroom shelves contain hardware – you can read this article we wrote on different types of bathroom shelves that are available. When all of these things are considered together they are referred to as hardware.

    As with most home design guidelines, there is often not a hard rule about what is right and what is wrong. Most designers agree that hardware should match within the rooms they’re found in a home. This is suggested because it’s easier to create compelling combinations with those guidelines. That doesn’t mean you should keep yourself from experimenting and finding a hardware composition that makes you the happiest.

    CNC processing is a term commonly used in manufacturing and industrial applications. But exactly what is CNC? 

    CNC 101: The term CNC stands for 'computer numerical control', and the CNC machining definition is that it is a subtractive manufacturing process that typically employs computerized controls and machine tools to remove layers of material from a stock piece—known as the blank or workpiece—and produces a custom-designed part. This process is suitable for a wide range of materials, including metals, plastics, wood, glass, foam, and composites, and finds application in a variety of industries, such as large CNC machining, machining of parts and prototypes for telecommunications, and CNC machining aerospace parts, which require tighter tolerances than other industries. Note there is a difference between the CNC machining definition and the CNC machine definition- one is a process and the other is a machine. A CNC machine is a programmable machine that is capable of autonomously performing the operations of CNC machining.

    Subtractive manufacturing processes, such as CNC machining, are often presented in contrast to additive manufacturing processes, such as 3D printing, or formative manufacturing processes, such as liquid injection molding. While subtractive processes remove layers of material from the workpiece to produce custom shapes and designs, additive processes assemble layers of material to produce the desired form and formative processes deform and displace stock material into the desired shape. The automated nature of CNC machining enables the production of high precision and high accuracy, simple parts and cost-effectiveness when fulfilling one-off and medium-volume production runs. However, while CNC machining demonstrates certain advantages over other manufacturing processes, the degree of complexity and intricacy attainable for part design and the cost-effectiveness of producing complex parts is limited.

    While each type of manufacturing process has its advantages and disadvantages, this article focuses on the CNC machining process, outlining the basics of the process, and the various components and tooling of the CNC machine (sometimes incorrectly known as a C and C machine). Additionally, this article explores various mechanical CNC machining operations and presents alternatives to the CNC machining process.

Wydrukuj tę wiadomość

  Stainless Steel, Bronze, Brass, or Aluminum: How to Choose Handle Materials
Napisane przez: ou89pd5 - 08-12-2021, 05:44 AM - Forum: GSM kontroler GSM - Brak odpowiedzi

Stainless Steel, Bronze, Brass, or Aluminum: How to Choose Handle Materials

    Door handles are a ubiquitous part of daily life, being used constantly in almost every space but rarely given thought by the passing user. Nevertheless, the chosen material of each handle can vary widely in terms of aesthetics, durability, and sustainability, with good choices going noticeably right and poor choices going noticeably wrong. For objects that are seen and used multiple times every day without fail, it’s imperative that designers get the choice right.

    Stainless Steel

    Stainless steel is a naturally corrosion-resistant, hard-wearing, and low-maintenance material. No matter the force or frequency of use, it rarely reveals traces of dents or scratches, even after years of employment. As a result, mirror polished stainless door handles require very little, if not no, care at all. First patented in 1912 by Krupp in Essen, stainless steel was referred to as “V2a-steel” and “Nirosta” (never rust). Recognized for its easy-care and blemishless properties at the outset, the material has since been used in scenarios requiring continuous use and infrequent maintenance. As a material for door handles, stainless steel is thus best applied to heavily used doors, particularly those in public buildings such as the public authorities, hospitals, on ships in motorway service areas, in parks and sports facilities, and other locations with large user populations that will be in use for a long time.

    While stainless steel does not rust, traces of dirt that collect over long periods of time can be quickly removed with a moist cloth. For stainless steel handles in chlorinated swimming pools, what appears to be surface rust is usually not from the material itself but is transported from outside to the fitting. These blemishes can be removed as well with vigorous rubbing.

    Brass

    Formed by an alloy of copper and zinc, brass has been used since time immemorial in the manufacture of decorative elements and accessories for doors and windows due to its unique golden tones. If not waxed or lacquered, brass will react naturally to environmental conditions, causing it to corrode and develop a brown to greenish-gray patina. This effect is valued by many designers and users for gracefully representing the passage of time. However, for those who wish to maintain the original golden tone, it is recommended to choose polished surfaces and avoid using the brass for frequently used doors or in spaces exposed to environmental conditions.

    Aluminum

    Aluminum is a lightweight and highly durable material, conceived of from the start as a high-tech option. It is strong and pleasant to handle, being highly adept at matching ambient temperatures, and allows for a multitude of aesthetic options due to its ability to be painted any range of colors.

    With a reputation for being used in the auto, aeronautical, and aerospace industries due to these unique qualities, aluminum can likewise be applied to door handles not just for its low weight, strength, and durability, but because of its ecologically friendly life cycle. While the initial extraction of aluminum requires a large amount of energy, the material can be recycled repeatedly with no loss, making up its initial extraction many times over through extensive energy savings.

    Aluminum coloring options additionally pave the way for seemingly unlimited aesthetic possibilities, ranging from classic emulations of real hardware metals to lively applications of hundreds of pure colors. Depending on methods of coloring, some mirror polished alu door handles are more durable than others – for example, blasted anodized aluminum finishes are typically more resistant to knocks and scratches than traditionally worked and anodized aluminum. If both color and durability are a priority for the designer, we recommend considering the differences in properties produced by differing processes.

    Do Your Furniture and Equipment Have the Proper Feet?

    Although people often don't think about the feet on furniture or heavy machinery, these items are of great importance. A home or office furnishing may take a great deal of abuse, especially at the floor level. When people sit down, they may unintentionally kick the furniture or vacuums and other cleaning supplies may run into the piece. Everything can do damage to the item, and the same is true when it comes to equipment in a home or office.

    Furthermore, machinery and heavy-duty shop equipment can damage the surface they rest on during operation, when in use, or when moved from one location to another, yet these components can help to prevent this damage. Furniture foot come in many varieties and provide numerous benefits, thus individuals need to understand the options and advantages when choosing feet for any purpose.

    What Exactly Does Bathroom Hardware Suite Include?

    Bathroom hardware is usually defined as any metal furnishing in a bathroom that you can interact with. The bathroom, in particular, has more hardware than most other rooms due to all of the handles, racks, and drawers. Hardware can include towel racks, shower curtain rods, showerheads, tub accessories, drawer handles, and other bathroom hardwares. There are even more possibilities and every bathroom is different depending on how it was designed. Even bathroom shelves contain hardware – you can read this article we wrote on different types of bathroom shelves that are available. When all of these things are considered together they are referred to as hardware.

    As with most home design guidelines, there is often not a hard rule about what is right and what is wrong. Most designers agree that hardware should match within the rooms they’re found in a home. This is suggested because it’s easier to create compelling combinations with those guidelines. That doesn’t mean you should keep yourself from experimenting and finding a hardware composition that makes you the happiest.

    CNC processing is a term commonly used in manufacturing and industrial applications. But exactly what is CNC? 

    CNC 101: The term CNC stands for 'computer numerical control', and the CNC machining definition is that it is a subtractive manufacturing process that typically employs computerized controls and machine tools to remove layers of material from a stock piece—known as the blank or workpiece—and produces a custom-designed part. This process is suitable for a wide range of materials, including metals, plastics, wood, glass, foam, and composites, and finds application in a variety of industries, such as large CNC machining, machining of parts and prototypes for telecommunications, and CNC machining aerospace parts, which require tighter tolerances than other industries. Note there is a difference between the CNC machining definition and the CNC machine definition- one is a process and the other is a machine. A CNC machine is a programmable machine that is capable of autonomously performing the operations of CNC machining.

    Subtractive manufacturing processes, such as CNC machining, are often presented in contrast to additive manufacturing processes, such as 3D printing, or formative manufacturing processes, such as liquid injection molding. While subtractive processes remove layers of material from the workpiece to produce custom shapes and designs, additive processes assemble layers of material to produce the desired form and formative processes deform and displace stock material into the desired shape. The automated nature of CNC machining enables the production of high precision and high accuracy, simple parts and cost-effectiveness when fulfilling one-off and medium-volume production runs. However, while CNC machining demonstrates certain advantages over other manufacturing processes, the degree of complexity and intricacy attainable for part design and the cost-effectiveness of producing complex parts is limited.

    While each type of manufacturing process has its advantages and disadvantages, this article focuses on the CNC machining process, outlining the basics of the process, and the various components and tooling of the CNC machine (sometimes incorrectly known as a C and C machine). Additionally, this article explores various mechanical CNC machining operations and presents alternatives to the CNC machining process.

Wydrukuj tę wiadomość

  Smart Cooking Tools You Must Have In Your Kitchen
Napisane przez: ou89pd5 - 08-12-2021, 05:43 AM - Forum: GSM kontroler GSM - Brak odpowiedzi

Smart Cooking Tools You Must Have In Your Kitchen

    As smartphones and tablet sales rise, several companies are starting to develop products that work with your favorite electronics to deliver superior control. In 2013, the Smart Kitchen finally arrived and now new products and services are being introduced to the market to make it a reality. Whether it's a smart oven that lets you program a special cooking process or an intelligent dishwasher, now is the time to find out just how a smart kitchen is able to enhance your life.

    Smart kitchen gadgets combine tech with traditional appliances and guide you through the cooking process to help make cooking easier. They also free up your schedule so you're not spending unnecessary time watching your meal cook — many of the appliances below pair with apps that let you monitor and adjust temperatures, cooking times, and power switches remotely.

    Whether you're a novice who is typically afraid of stepping foot into the kitchen, or a seasoned cook who wants to multitask, the following smart kitchen appliances can help you create the perfect meal. 

    When it is about chopping veggies, if you are not quick enough, it may take a long time to execute the entire process. So, having a kitchen stocked up with smart mini chopper machines or tools will not only save your time and effort but will reduce the chance of getting wounded by using knives while chopping.

    To maintain a healthy lifestyle, keeping few tools for juicing and blending is much needed. From making smoothies, juices to healthy smacks, these tools are pretty helpful. Also, when you are in the mood of baking, you must need smart kitchen gadgets to make the process easier.

    When we talk about a juicer, we mean an appliance that either crushes or pulverizes fruits or vegetables to separate the pulp from the juice, leaving you with a liquid that may be frothy with a little pulp. 

    A blender could be a personal blender or a super cutter and blender that blends whole fruits or vegetables to create a thicker smoothie.

    Whether you opt for a blender or a juicer depends on what you'd like to use it for. Blenders are a more versatile appliance – as well as smoothies, you can use them to make everything from milkshakes and frappes to soups, salad dressings and nut milks (or, if it's a high-performance 'super blender', even pestos or nut butters). 

    Meanwhile, juicers usually just make, well, juices. That's not to say there's not something to get excited about on the juice front. 

    A kitchen soap dispenser can come in various designs, ranging from the standard pump mechanisms and infrared sensors to foaming or built-in dispensers. A plastic dispenser is one of the most common choices as it is economical. Glass kitchen dispensers will be a much more sustainable option as compared to plastic and stainless steel dispensers will provide maximum durability. Having a high-quality dish soap dispenser will ease your daily chore of washing dishes and will also make your sink area much more presentable. While selecting a product, go for a type that is both easy to use and sturdy to weather multiple usages. The best kitchen soap dispenser should suit your kitchen’s look as well as your preference of mechanism. 

    We know, knife sharpeners aren’t found in most kitchens. People usually throw away knives the moment they become dull, which leads to unnecessary waste and additional expenditure. This makes it all the more important to own knife sharpeners, as they help your blades perform their best and look brand new.

    A long day of cooking can often result in a messy kitchen—splatters of sauce here, pots and pans with crusty bottoms there, a full dishwasher and a sink that’s starting to fill up, too. But with the right tools, you can make your clean up a little bit easier. There are scrubbers specifically designed for cleaning cast iron skillets, and crumb scrapers to help you get debris off your table. 

    Getting dishwashing off from your to-do list can feel like the most relieving experience even though no one looks forward to doing it every day. If you are still using a single, dated scrub pad in the kitchen for all sorts of cleaning tasks, then you are about to be introduced to a whole new set of cleaning tools that can make this chore much easier and fuss-free. From efficient gloves that make scrubbing off crusty cookware easier to automatic washing soap dispensers, the soap dispenser brush set can upgrade your utensil washing routine.

    The smart thermometer has an outdoor wireless range of 200 feet and sends you a notification and alarm when your meat reaches the set temperature. Through the app, you can see real-time temperatures and save cooking presets for your favorite recipes. The thermometer itself has an easy-to-read LCD display and the probes can be left inside the oven for the entire time.

    A smart fridge that can help plan your meals

    This fridge is more than a food storage appliance. Set expiration notifications so your food never goes bad, plan a meal based on the available ingredients in your fridge, and see the contents of your fridge from anywhere. You can share photos and synced calendars on the screen, plus control smart home devices like lights, thermostats, and doorbells, and stream music, all through voice commands. 

Baking relies on ultra-precise measurements, so if you love baking, get this smart scale. It's easier and faster than using spoons and cups, and can make following even the most complicated recipes less intimidating. It also reduces clean-up time since you can just place all your ingredients in one bowl. 

    There are many common features between different smart appliances. They include familiar interfaces, such as glass-paneled, touchscreens and lighted displays, and an assortment of shared technologies.

    Refrigerators, range hoods, and smart turntables may have interior cameras to give you quick and easy visuals of the food inside or above the stovetop.

    Some are equipped with microphones and speakers. This provides voice-activation commands via the smart devices connected to the appliances. It can also allow the use of audio/visual media through any connected apps, whether a video chat while you cook, or to watch a step-by-step instruction video of a new recipe, or to watch TV in the kitchen.

    These connected systems allow some appliances to email you alerts when it’s time for maintenance or to restock supplies. This can include access to helpful tips or customer service help.

    Updating to a modern smart kitchen means finding the best kitchen appliances that fit your space and how your household uses it. Whether cooking-in after a busy day, or finally trying that baking recipe you found online, the smart technology behind these new appliances is designed to make it simple and even a little fun. Multitask by listening to music or podcasts, or even video chat with friends as you prepare or cook your favorite meals.

    It’s a little like living in the future, but these new kitchen designs are already here. It’s up to you which futuristic features your household will use most, so take a look at the variety of choices already available.

Wydrukuj tę wiadomość

  The Truth About Polypropylene Woven Bags Packaging
Napisane przez: ou89pd5 - 08-12-2021, 05:38 AM - Forum: GSM kontroler GSM - Brak odpowiedzi

The Truth About Polypropylene Woven Bags Packaging

    The packaging is usually divided into two categories: one is to promote market sales and the other is to facilitate loading, unloading, storage, storage, and transportation purposes, called industrial packaging. This article will focus on plastic packaging. This article first describes the concept of polypropylene woven bags, then outlines its advantages and uses, and then analyzes the dynamics and demands of the polypropylene is woven bag market, and finally draws conclusions.

    PP woven sachets are available in laminated or non-laminated forms depending on the material. This material is a commonly used material, which is a translucent material in polypropylene woven bags. When using this material, it will not produce any poisonous effect, and it will not have any odor. We can process pp into plastic woven bags, which are widely used in the packaging industry. When processing this material, woven bag manufacturers need to burn it to its melting point, 167 degrees Celsius, so it will have strong heat resistance when it is used later. Steam will also be used for disinfection so that all products will not be damaged during use. It is worth mentioning that the products made from pp have a very small density, so the product is very lightweight and more convenient for us to use. Moreover, the plastic woven bag made of this material also has high strength and corrosion resistance, so as a popular packaging product now, it is not only lightweight and durable but also can be recycled after use; it is truly a popular packaging product.

    Currently, due to product resource and price issues, 6 billion woven bags are used in cement packaging in China each year, accounting for more than 85% of bulk cement packaging. With the development and application of flexible container bags, plastic woven bags are widely used in marine, transportation, packaging, and agricultural products. In agricultural product packaging, plastic woven bags have been widely used in aquatic product packaging, poultry feed packaging, and farm covering materials. Common products: feed woven bags, chemical woven bags, the putty powder is woven bags, urea woven bags, vegetable mesh bags, fruit mesh bags, etc.

    Jumbo bags, also known as FIBC bags, have become the go-to choice for packing and logistics across industries. A jumbo bag manufacturer can help you with providing bulk storing and transporting options whether your business involves food, chemicals, medicines, etc. These bags really are a one-stop shop for storing, packing and transporting needs. 

    Jumbo bags have become the preferred option for the following give reasons: 

    Customization: One of the biggest advantages of a jumbo bag is that it can be customized in terms of size depending on the need. 
       
    Light weight and convenient: Unlike metal containers or rigid containers, jumbo bags are light weight, hence, far more convenient to use to pack goods in bulk. Moreover, they’re not required to be brought back, once empty, as is the case with metal containers. 
       
    Easy to handle: Owing to their make and weight, FIBC bags are easy to handle, even when used to their full capacity. They’re also safe, making it an ideal choice for workers as they ensure efficiency as well as safety. 
       
    High quality: Since FIBC jumbo bags have been in-use for decades, their quality has constantly evolved with time, making them a good fit and ideal for packaging. Moreover, their usability has also increased over the years as they’ve been customized to fit different packaging needs. 
       
    Environmentally friendly: In today’s context of global warming and climate change, FIBC jumbo bags have become even more relevant and preferred as they’re environmentally friendly.
       
    Carton packaging[/b]: the trending sustainable packaging solution[/b]

    In the on-going reduction of single-use plastics, there has been a shift towards fibre-based alternatives, such as carbon. Cartons, made from corrugated paperboard, have been the go-to solution for several decades now. Their structural features make it an ideal packaging solution while offering a range of advantages. Consequently, product manufacturers and retailers and increasingly turning to paperboards as a means to ship, store and market their products. The best thing about carton manufacturing is that their advantages can be retained for the whole lifecycle of the product and more.

Wydrukuj tę wiadomość

  Cotton or Polycotton Fabric
Napisane przez: ou89pd5 - 08-12-2021, 05:37 AM - Forum: GSM kontroler GSM - Brak odpowiedzi

When shopping for clothes, consumers are presented with a wide range to choose from. The combination of fabrics, styles, and different manufacturers can make the choice a daunting one. Two of the more popular fabrics for clothes are 100% cotton fabric and polycotton fabric. But which is the best choice? In short, that depends on what the buyer is looking for.

    So, what are the differences between 100% cotton and poly-cotton blend fabrics? To start with, a poly-cotton blend is just what its name suggests: a fabric that is made up of cotton and polyester fibers. The ratio varies, with 65% cotton and 35% polyester being the most common. 50/50 blends are also easily found. The blend is designed to afford the advantages of both the cotton and polyester fibers into one fabric.

    What are the advantages and disadvantages of cotton?

    100% cotton is a fully breathable fabric, which means that it can be cooler to wear in hot conditions. However, as the thickness increases, the breathability decreases. 100% cotton tends to rip and wear out easily, depending on the weave. Cotton canvas is a very durable and abrasion-resistant fabric, but it is very thick and heavy. In regards to safety, cotton fibers that have not been treated for fire resistance will tend to burn away where polyester will melt. As a natural fiber, 100% cotton garments also tend to be a bit more expensive than their synthetic counterparts.

    Polyester has an equal number of advantages and disadvantages as cotton

    Polyester does not breathe and has a tendency to stick to the skin once perspiration begins. In regard to durability, polyester is a more elastic fiber and therefore tends to be tear resistant. However, it does not tend to be as abrasion-resistant as cotton canvas. As polyester is not dependent upon the forces of nature for a successful harvest, it is usually considerably cheaper than 100% cotton.

    A fabric made from a polycotton blend combines the strengths of the two fibers. Polycotton garments are breathable, tear-resistant, and can be fashioned into abrasion-resistant fabrics, like canvas. While not as inexpensive as pure polyester, polycotton blends do tend to cost less than comparable garments made of 100% cotton and they provide much more comfort. The previously mentioned 65/35 blend of cotton and polyester is the most popular for work garments, particularly because of price, durability and a larger color selection is available for purchase. When shopping for work garments, the choice between 100% cotton and polycotton blends depends largely on the work environment and personal preference. If employees work indoors around machinery, the tear-resistance of polycotton may be favorable. If the work is in an outdoor setting, particularly in hot climates, 100% cotton fabric could be the better choice. Before deciding, make sure to take all environmental factors into consideration.

    It is the intention of this article to help shed some light on the different types of fabric characteristics of 100% cotton and poly cotton fabric. We are hoping to share our thoughts with you in order for you to make a more informed decision when choosing the fabric type for your garments.

    If you’ve ever wondered what’s the difference between water-resistant and water-repellent or between water-repellent and waterproof or between water-resistant and waterproof textiles and clothing, you’ve come to the right place.

    The main function of outdoor clothing is to provide protection against environmental factors. In a wet environment, the basic requirement for clothing is to keep the wearer dry. Therefore, the outer layer of your clothing, as well as your gloves or mitts, need to resist moisture. But what are the main terms regarding this? What do they really mean? Is there any difference between them? If so, what’s the difference? Here, we’ll try to answer these and many other questions regarding water-repellent, water-resistant, and waterproof fabrics and clothing.

    In contact with water, water-repellent materials form beads on the outside that can be easily removed from the fabric surface. This means that water can’t easily penetrate the material; however, for longer contact with water or with a higher pressure difference, the material will absorb water. Water-repellent fabrics are often compact textile structures or common materials treated with hydrophobic chemicals. Although water-resistant and water-repellent are often used interchangeably, there’s a difference as water-resistant fabrics will resist wetting by water for longer. Waterproofing of a material is defined as the property of a material not to be penetrated by fluids, i.e. a waterproof material must be impervious to water.

    Tencel fabric is a popular fabric of choice for eco-conscious clothing brands. It’s light and versatile, and used in everything from casual wear to underwear to activewear. But what impact does it have on people, the planet, and animals? Is Tencel ethical and sustainable? We’ve put together a cheatsheet to help demystify this fabric and put the power back in your hands. Tencel is a type of rayon, like viscose and modal. These cellulose fibres are all made in a similar way: by dissolving wood pulp and using a special drying process called spinning. Before drying, the wood chips are mixed with a solvent to produce a wet mixture. This mixture is then pushed through small holes to form threads, chemically treated, then the lengths of fibre are spun into yarn and woven into cloth. 

    Table linen fabric is a fabric that can be reused, including tablecloths, napkins, placemats, table skirts and napkins. 

    Table napkins are a small piece of table linen that is used to wipe the mouth and to cover the lap in order to protect clothing or place mats, which serve as a table linen for an individual place setting. Linen napkins, especially those with a vibrant color, are often used to transform a table from the ordinary to special. 

    A tablecloth is used to cover a table. They can be ornamental coverings, as well as a provider of protection from scratches and stains. Other tablecloths are designed to be spread on a dining table before laying out tableware and food. Tablecloths are standard covering for a restaurant dining table and in many homeowners formal dinner tables and are often high quality, bright white linen or cotton cloth. Some of the most popular types of tablecloth fabric include cotton, polyester and linen tablecloths. Polyester tablecloths are easy to wipe down and clean and are often found in casual dining restaurants. 

    Lightweight cotton fabrics come in a variety of weights from sheer to semi-sheer. You can see lines from the cutting table (or your hand) underneath the sheer fabric. This means fashionable sheer cotton dresses must be lined with lining fabric. They can also be worn with a camisole or an underbody. Not all lightweight kinds of cotton are sheer. Some darker and/or printed fabrics go with regular lingerie.

    Fabrics like cotton gauze and cotton voile fold nicely and make airy dresses with a drapery. A gauze also has some crinkle to it so it is often used for making tunics, tops, swimsuit cover-ups etc. Cotton lawn fabrics are a little more of semi-sheer, closer to opaque. Liberty is probably the most popular and favourite brand. They are super soft and really wearable especially after being washed.

    High thread count Egyptian cotton bedding sheets fabric is a very popular item in the luxury bedding category recently. Fabric thread counts have spiraled to dizzying heights, and now range from 180 to 1500. Traditional wisdom counsels that fabric increases in softness as thread count increases, so shoppers gravitate toward high numbers when making their final purchasing decision. However, the rules for determining quality fabrics in the marketplace has changed. You can no longer make an apple-to-apple comparison between two bed sheet sets based strictly on thread count numbers.

Wydrukuj tę wiadomość

  The Different Types of Tablet Packing Machines
Napisane przez: ou89pd5 - 08-12-2021, 05:36 AM - Forum: GSM kontroler GSM - Brak odpowiedzi

The Different Types of Tablet Packing Machines

    Packaging machinery is one of the vital equipment in the pharmaceutical industry, food processing, and chemical industries among which blister packaging machines are widely used for packaging capsules, pills, tablets, suppositories, etc. We can get an effective and safe packaging of tablets from a tablet press or capsules from capsule filling with the help of a blister packing machine. It contians different types for different use, such as pharmaceutical blister packing machine, food blister packaging machine, etc. The blister packing machine is designed for packing the different products (tablets, strong or delicate gelatin capsules, and so forth) into a blister.

    A wide variety of tablet packaging machines are available from different manufacturers. A high-speed machine that is ideal for different products such as tablets, dragees or capsules. Machines are robust and well constructed and generally provide high quality by using accurate temperature control, and the ability to exert variable pressure on the sealing rollers. A strip packaging machine is ideal for coating heat sealable films such as polymer-coated aluminum foil, cellophane and polymer-coated paper.

    The process of strip packing entails the packaging of pharmaceutical products consisting of lozenges, tablets, capsules, etc. between two sheets of heat-sealable foil like paper-poly and aluminum-poly.

    You seal the pharmaceutical product inside pockets created within two, continually moving foil sheets.

    The area about the pockets creates a hermetic seal hence providing a specific shelf life to the items contained within it.

    An automatic cartoning machine is a device that you can use to make special carton packages for different products. The machine involves an integration of light, electrical, air, and mechanical configurations to make a carton for different products. Since the machine is fully automatic, most of the controls are under a computer control system that regulates its operations.

    Capsule filling machines are used to fill empty capsules with substances, such as medicines or nutrients and are available in both personal and professional formats. Personal capsule filling machines are often manual or semi-automatic and used for families or for one's own use at an office and allow individuals to easily fill their capsules with the necessary medication. They are also often used by compounders to customize medication based on a patient’s specific need. Professional machines are designed for production or scientific use and can efficiently and safely produce thousands of capsules in a single hour. Fully automatic capsule filling machines must accurately fill capsules repeatedly, often with extremely low dosage weights.

Wydrukuj tę wiadomość

  Stacja pogodowa
Napisane przez: tombla - 08-11-2021, 09:52 AM - Forum: LanKontroler V3.5 - Odpowiedzi (4)

Dzień dobry,
chciałbym stworzyć stacje pogodową w oparciu o Lan Kontroler V3.5 - szukam informacji o jakimś kompatybilnym sensorze prędkości i kierunku wiatru.
W sieci znalazłem taką stacje pogodową:
https://botland.com.pl/stacje-pogodowe/1...15901.html
Czy mogę prosić o informacje:
1. Czy da się ją zintegrować z Lan Kontrolerem?
jeżeli tak, to:
2. Jak to zrobić?
jeżeli nie, to:
3. Czy ktoś ma informacje o podobnym rozwiązaniu, którą można zintegrować z Lan Kontrolerem

Będę wdzięczny za każdą informację.

Miłego dnia

Wydrukuj tę wiadomość

  Enabling a circular economy for chemicals in plastics
Napisane przez: ou89pd3 - 08-11-2021, 04:15 AM - Forum: GSM kontroler GSM - Brak odpowiedzi

Enabling a circular economy for chemicals in plastics

    Enabling a circular economy for plastics in Europe and beyond is an ambitious goal. To reach a fully closed loop, numerous challenges and knowledge gaps need to be overcome. This review provides a list of more than 6000 chemicals reported to be found in plastics and an overview of the challenges and gaps in assessing their impacts on the environment and human health along the life cycle of plastic products. We further identified 1518 plastic-related chemicals of concern, which should be prioritized for substitution by safer alternatives. At last, we propose five policy recommendations, including the need of a global and overarching regulatory framework for plastics and related chemicals, in support of a circular economy for plastics and of target 12.4 of the UN Sustainable Development Goals.

    State of knowledge of chemicals in plastics

    Overview of chemical additives
       
    The production of chemicals for plastics is continuously increasing in terms of both quantity and diversity, with several thousand chemicals used across many material applications. Estimating global additives production is not an easy task, because these data are usually not publicly available. However, with a global plastic production of 368 Mt in 2019, and assuming 1–10% additives mass fraction for nonfibre plastics, the total amount of additives used in 2019 might be around 20 (3.6–36.8) Mt. If plastic production follows current increasing trends, it is estimated that we will have produced 2000 Mt of additives by the end of 2050. Plasticizers are the most used additives and together with flame retardants cover almost 50% of globally applied additives. Owing to their wide-ranging application and high-production volumes, these two types of additives have been receiving special attention (e.g. Commission Regulation (EU) 2018/2005).
       
    Additives are applied during the production process at different concentrations based on the specific function that they need to fulfil. It provides an overview of functions, typical material application, chemical classes, and application ranges. For example, plasticizer application ranges vary across materials, and can reach up to 60–70% of the plastic mass in soft PVC resin products. Other additives are usually applied at much lower concentrations, such as 0.7–25% for flame retardants or 0.05–5% for stabilizers and&nbsp;antioxidants. The concentration of unintentional residues is typically <1%. Generally, it is accepted to consider as NIAS only compounds with a mass <1000&nbsp;Da, assuming that substances with a higher molecular weight cannot be absorbed in the body (EU No 10/2011, although there might be some uptake in the gut).
       
    Chemicals reported in plastics
       
    As of today, there is no publicly available database containing a complete and detailed list of chemicals used in the various plastic products, specifying typical function, plastic types, and mass fraction ranges. In an attempt to provide such an overview, we used the mapping of plastic additives conducted by the European Chemical Agency (ECHA), and expanded it with data from 35 additional sources. The considered sources include—amongst others—Annex I of Commission Regulation (EU) No 10/2011, also called the Union list, which is a positive list of&nbsp;monomers&nbsp;and additives authorized for use in plastic-based food contact materials, the work conducted by Groh et&nbsp;al., and the Chemicals and Product Categories database (CPCat; actor.epa.gov/cpcat), which contains information across different categories and materials
       
    As a result, It&nbsp;provides a list of more than 6000 functional additives, pigments and other substances found (both currently and in the past) in plastics. For each substance, we provide CAS number, main chemical function, typical application range, and polymer type (when available). For building the data set, we checked and harmonized where needed the reported chemical names, CAS numbers, and functions. Chemicals were classified according to their specific function in plastic materials based on the information reported in the considered sources. Wherever such information was missing, we retrieved the function from other references.
       
    It aims at providing a comprehensive overview of chemicals found in plastics across different polymers and product applications. It contains various types of substances reported to be found in plastics; consequently, it is not limited to additives but also includes NIAS, solvents, unreacted monomers, starting substances, and processing aids.
       
    Challenges and gaps in assessing plastic-related chemicals’ impacts in a circularity context
       
    The goal of a&nbsp;circular economy&nbsp;is to move.
       
    Sodium carbonate, activated carbon and copper-impregnated aluminium are used to absorb the sulphur without the use of water. They give efficiencies of absorption of 85–90% and have the advantage of not cooling the stack gases. The gases will then rise upwards from the top of the stack and disperse more widely in the atmosphere.
       
    Food packaging is of high societal value because it conserves and protects food, makes food transportable and conveys information to consumers. It is also relevant for marketing, which is of economic significance. Other types of food contact articles, such as storage containers, processing equipment and filling lines, are also important for food production and food supply. Food contact articles are made up of one or multiple different food contact materials and consist of food contact chemicals. However, food contact chemicals transfer from all types of food contact materials and articles into food and, consequently, are taken up by humans. Here we highlight topics of concern based on scientific findings showing that food contact materials and articles are a relevant exposure pathway for known hazardous substances as well as for a plethora of toxicologically uncharacterized chemicals, both intentionally and non-intentionally added. We describe areas of certainty, like the fact that chemicals migrate from food contact articles into food, and uncertainty, for example unidentified chemicals migrating into food. Current safety assessment of food contact chemicals is ineffective at protecting human health. In addition, society is striving for waste reduction with a focus on food packaging. As a result, solutions are being developed toward reuse, recycling or alternative (non-plastic) materials. However, the critical aspect of chemicals for food safety is often ignored. Developing solutions for improving the safety of food contact chemicals and for tackling the circular economy must include current scientific knowledge. This cannot be done in isolation but must include all relevant experts and stakeholders. Therefore, we provide an overview of areas of concern and related activities that will improve the safety of food contact articles and support a circular economy. Our aim is to initiate a broader discussion involving scientists with relevant expertise but not currently working on food contact materials, and decision makers and influencers addressing single-use food packaging due to environmental concerns. Ultimately, we aim to support science-based decision making in the interest of improving public health. Notably, reducing exposure to hazardous food contact chemicals contributes to the prevention of associated chronic diseases in the human population.
       
    Titanium dioxide is odourless and absorbent. Its most important function in powder form is as a widely used&nbsp;pigment for lending whiteness and opacity[/b]. Titanium dioxide has been used as a bleaching and opacifying agent in porcelain enamels, giving them brightness, hardness, and acid resistance.
       
    We supply innovative specialty chemicals for textile leathe and related industries that include dyes, pretreatment, bleaching, finishing, coating and special effects products. Our commercial and technical teams will provide you with unparalleled sales support to fit your needs and keep you in the loop with the latest market developments.
       
    We provide high quality raw materials, sourced from leading global manufacturers, as well as a wide range of value-added services including formulation advice, lab support, sampling, and professional handling and delivery of your products.
       
    The addition of&nbsp;water treatment chemicals&nbsp;has always been considered as a standard operation in&nbsp;water and wastewater treatment. The concentration of chemicals was usually kept to the minimum necessary to achieve a good quality of potable or otherwise treated water. A significant interruption to the status-quo occurred more than 20 years ago after a severe and highly publicized outbreak of&nbsp;Cryptosporidium parvum[/i]&nbsp;oocysts. The strategic planning after the outbreak was to shift from physical-chemical to physical treatment methods, such as membrane filtration and UV disinfection. As such, the new procedures were supposed to eliminate the threat of water contamination through a minor addition of chemicals. Such was the mistrust and disappointment with water treatment chemicals themselves.
       
    Indeed, water treatment technologies, such as chemicals for water treatment, are now using novel physical treatment methods. Membranes largely replaced granular filtration, and UV is paving the way towards minimization or elimination of the use of classic disinfection chemicals, such as chlorine and its derivatives. Yet, far from the “high-tech” revolution in water treatment technologies actually reducing the use of chemicals, the latter has in fact been significantly increased. The “conventional” chemicals used for&nbsp;pre-treatment, disinfection,&nbsp;corrosion prevention, softening and algae bloom depression are all still in place. Furthermore, new groups of chemicals such as biocides,&nbsp;chelating agents&nbsp;and fouling cleaners are currently used to supplement them. These latter are the chemicals needed to protect the high-tech equipment, to optimize the treatment, and to clean the equipment between uses.
       
    The health effects of the new chemicals introduced into water are yet to be fully established. Typically, a higher treatment efficiency requires effective chemicals, yet these are not always environmentally friendly. It seems obvious that the “high-tech” revolution currently affects the sustainability of water resources, and certainly not in a completely positive way. In short, the adverse effects of the introduction of such a significant amount of treatment chemicals into our sources of water are yet to be evaluated.
       
    Employees in printing industries can be exposed to multiple solvents in their work environment, like all sorts of chemicals for paint and print. The objectives of this study were to investigate the critical components of chemical solvents by analyzing the components of the solvents and collecting the Safety data sheets (SDSs), and to evaluate the hazard communication implementation status in printing industries.

Wydrukuj tę wiadomość

  Brief on Features and Applications of Solvent Dyes, and The Chemistry of Pigments
Napisane przez: ou89pd3 - 08-11-2021, 04:11 AM - Forum: GSM kontroler GSM - Brak odpowiedzi

Brief on Features and Applications of Solvent Dyes, and The Chemistry of Pigments

    The selection of solvent for preparing a working electrode (and to act as the electrolyte) is known to influence the efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells. In this topical review, results taken from a systematic study are presented from the authors’ own lab examining how protic and aprotic solvents, as well as solvent polarity, affect adsorption of carboxylic dyes on the titanium dioxide nanoparticle surface and electron injection from the dye to the semiconductor. Adsorption of dye molecules on nanoparticle surfaces is measured through second harmonic light scattering and electron injection through ultrafast transient mid-infrared absorption. It is revealed that protic solvents do not allow direct adsorption of the dye onto the semiconductor surface, due to hydrogen bonding with the dye and competitive binding to the semiconductor surface. Aprotic solvents, on the other hand, support solvation of the dye molecules but also facilitate dye adsorption on the semiconductor nanoparticle. Among aprotic solvents, it is found that solvents with higher polarity result in larger adsorption free energy for the dye and faster electron injection. Overall, these studies reveal that aprotic solvents with high solvent polarity (such as acetonitrile) yield more efficient solar cell devices.

    The world of dyes and pigments is vast and there are innumerable varieties of these colorants to fulfill the requirements of varied industrial and commercial sectors. Acid dyes, basic dyes, solvent dyes,&nbsp;lake colors,&nbsp;pigment colors are just to name a few from the vast ocean of colors. This article will talk in brief about the solvent dye.

    Solvent dye is a dye that is soluble in plastics or organic solvents. When it goes with an organic solvent the dyeing process occurs in a solution. As the molecules of solvent dyes have a very small polarity or none at all there is no ionization involved in the dyeing process as it does, say, with acid dyes. Solvent dyes are normally water insoluble. One commonly used organic solvent with solvent dyes that is non-polar is petrol.

    As for the naming of solvent dyes a standardized pattern is followed. In the pattern, the first word is always ‘solvent’ which is followed by the dye color and then a distinguishing number. For example, the varied shades of red are segregated by the distinct number that comes after the shade name like ‘Solvent Red 49’, ‘Solvent Red 1’, and ‘Solvent Red 24’ and so on.&nbsp; Another example of the shade red occurring in another type of dye is&nbsp;Pigment Red 48&nbsp;which is an azo derivative from naphthalene.

    Solvent dyes are pretty versatile and have found their way into a number of applications. One of their common uses is in the automotive sector to impart color to petrol fuel and other lubricants. Varied hydrocarbon based non-polar materials such as waxes and candles, coatings and wood stains are colored with the aid of solvent dyes. In the printing industry they go towards marking inkjet inks, inks and glass coloration. Textile printing is followed by the media industry where the solvent dyes are used for magazines and newspapers.

    Dyeing of plastics is another application which uses solvent dyes because of its chemical compatibility. In the plastics industry these dyes lend color to a number of solid materials like nylon, acetates, polyester, PVC, acrylics, PETP, PMMA, styrene monomers, polystyrene and other fiber. They are also increasingly being used for smoke signaling in the pyrotechnics industry. A mention has to be made of its application in scientific research and medical diagnostics. Here, the solvent dye is used as an important component to produce stains that help in identification of varied components in a cell structure.

    There are several advantages offered by solvent dyes that have led to its wide use in varied applications. Color shade consistency, superior light fastness, resistance to migration, good thermal stability, extremely dissolvable in plastics and lack of precipitation even after extensive storage are just to name some of its superior attributes.

    However, sourcing solvent dyes from reputed&nbsp;solvent dyes manufacturers&nbsp;is highly important. This guarantees you the quality of the product and its effectiveness in the application it shall be used for. There are several reputed manufactures of these dyes and the names can be easily obtained from the online yellow pages.

    At the heart of every drop of paint, every thread of cloth, every bit of your brightly colored phone case is a pigment. Pigments are the compounds added to materials to give them color. This deceptively simple application has shaped our perception of the world via art, fashion, and even&nbsp;computer displays&nbsp;and&nbsp;medicine. Pigments are used in&nbsp;paints,&nbsp;inks, plastic applications, fabrics,&nbsp;cosmetics, and food.

    Some of the earliest chemistry was to make and isolate pigments for paints, and pigment conservation is a focus for many modern researchers who identify and preserve artwork.

    Get to know pigments

    But what is a organic pigment, exactly? Pigments are brightly colored, insoluble powders (brightly colored liquids are called dyes). In most cases, the bright color is a result of the material absorbing light in the visible spectrum. In inorganic pigments, this absorption is the result of charge transfer between a metal (transition metals&nbsp;are really good at this); organic pigments tend to have&nbsp;conjugated double bonds&nbsp;that absorb visible wavelengths.

    Pigments are mixed with binders to attach them to a substrate. The resulting suspension—a paint—is used to coat materials and impart color onto them. In industry, there are three pigment classes: absorption pigments (used in watercolor paints), metal effect pigments (used to create surface luster), and pearlescent pigments.

    Pigments are found in nature, such as ochre (a blend of iron oxides and hydroxides) and indigo (C16H10N2O2). They can also be synthetic pigments such as mauve (an aniline derivative) or white lead. White lead, one of the earliest synthetic pigments, is made by treating sheets of lead with vinegar. They are often more robust than dyes, which dissolve in the material they are coloring. Pigments can keep their color for many centuries and withstand high heat, intense light, and exposure to weather or chemical agents.&nbsp;&nbsp;

    Cataloging colors

    Because of their prominence in art, pigments have an important place in history. The&nbsp;Forbes Pigment Collection, housed in the Straus Center for Conservation and Technical Studies at the Harvard Art Museums, catalogs and preserves more than 2,500 pigments. Its founder, Edward Forbes, started the collection by gathering pigment samples from his travels all over the world, including colors like mummy brown, made from ground-up mummies, and carmine red (C22H15AlCaO13), obtained from cochineal insects.

    The Forbes Pigment Collection is often used as a reference library to standardize colors and identify pigment samples from artworks, which can confirm or disprove the piece’s origins. For instance, in 2007, a painting supposedly by Jackson Pollock was discovered to be a forgery when chemical analysis revealed the presence of pigments that weren’t available until decades after his death (Custer, 2007).

    Furthermore, many artists had personal preferences and favored certain pigments over others. Thus, knowing which pigments were used, and whether they were in character for the artist or not, can help art historians determine an art piece’s authenticity.

    The Forbes Pigment Collection, which boasts more than 60 natural samples, also highlights one of the challenges with natural pigments. Natural pigments were gathered from nature, for example, ore deposits, minerals, and flowers. But tiny shifts in chemical composition or particle growth cause specific shades to vary significantly due to impurities present in the sample.

    Analyzing and understanding the high performance pigment used in paintings is also vital to artwork restoration and preservation.&nbsp;Many pigments chemically, like coating and paints,&nbsp;react with ambient light and humidity, as well as harsher substances like soot and smoke from cigars or fireplaces. Pigments may oxidize, dissolve in acid or water, undergo phase transitions, react with the binders in the paint, or degrade.

    For example, eosin Y was a pigment historically favored by many artists, most notably Vincent van Gogh. Initially a vibrant red, exposure to&nbsp;light gradually turns eosin white&nbsp;as UV radiation excites the pigment molecules and leads to the production of OH radicals. This breaks down the structure of the pigment, and eventually turns it white. Knowing such information allows art historians to better conserve art.

Wydrukuj tę wiadomość